Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor Attenuates Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Mice - Landmark Asthma Publication

Abstract

Control of airway inflammation is critical in asthma treatment. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has recently been demonstrated as a novel therapeutic target for treating inflammation, including lung inflammation. We hypothesized that pharmacological inhibition of sEH can modulate the inflammatory response in a murine ovalbumin (OVA) model of asthma. BALB/c mice were sensitized and exposed to OVA over 6 weeks. A sEH inhibitor (sEHI) was administered for 2 weeks. Respiratory system compliance, resistance, and forced exhaled nitric oxide were measured. Lung lavage cell counts were performed, and selected cytokines and chemokines in the lung lavage fluid were measured. A LC/MS/MS method was used to measure 87 regulatory lipids mediators in plasma, lung tissue homogenates, and lung lavage fluid. The pharmacological inhibition of sEH increased concentrations of the antiinflammatory epoxy eicosatrienoic acids and simultaneously decreased the concentrations of the proinflammatory dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids and dihydroxyoctadecenoic acids. All monitored inflammatory markers, including FeNO levels, and total cell and eosinophil numbers in the lung lavage of OVA-exposed mice were reduced by sEHI. The type 2 T helper cell (Th2) cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) and chemokines (Eotaxin and RANTES) were dramatically reduced after sEHI administration. Resistance and dynamic lung compliance were also improved by sEHI. We demonstrated that sEHI administration attenuates allergic airway inflammation and airway responsiveness in a murine model. sEHI may have potential as a novel therapeutic strategy for allergic asthma.

Lipoxin generation is related to soluble epoxide hydrolase activity in severe asthma. - Landmark Asthma Publication

Abstract 

RATIONALE:

Severe asthma is characterized by airway inflammatory responses associated with aberrant metabolism of arachidonic acid. Lipoxins(LX) are arachidonate-derived pro-resolving mediators that are decreased in severe asthma, yet mechanisms for defective LX biosynthesis and a means to increase LXs in severe asthma remain to be established.

OBJECTIVES:

To determine if oxidative stress and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) activity are linked to decreased LX biosynthesis in severe asthma.

METHODS:

Aliquots of blood, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were obtained from asthma subjects for mediator determination. Select samples were exposed to t-butyl-hydroperoxide or sEH inhibitor (sEHI) before activation. Peripheral blood leukocyte-platelet aggregates were monitored by flow cytometry, and bronchial contraction was determined with cytokine-treated human lung sections.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

8-Isoprostane levels in sputum supernatants were inversely related to LXA4 in severe asthma (r = -0.55; P = 0.03) and t-butyl-hydroperoxide decreased LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 biosynthesis by peripheral blood leukocytes. LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 levels were inversely related to sEH activity in sputum supernatants and sEHIs significantly increased 14,15-epoxy-eicosatrienoic acid and 15-epi-LXA4generation by severe asthma whole blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells. The abundance of peripheral blood leukocyte-platelet aggregates was related to asthma severity. In a concentration-dependent manner, LXs significantly inhibited platelet-activating factor-induced increases in leukocyte-platelet aggregates (70.8% inhibition [LXA4 100 nM], 78.3% inhibition [15-epi-LXA4 100 nM]) and 15-epi-LXA4 markedly inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α-induced increases in bronchial contraction.

CONCLUSIONS:

LX levels were decreased by oxidative stress and sEH activity. Inhibitors of sEH increased LXs that mediated antiphlogistic actions, suggesting a new therapeutic approach for severe asthma.

Dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase synergistically suppresses primary tumor growth and metastasis - Landmark Cancer Publication

Abstract

Prostaglandins derived from the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) from the cytochrome P450/soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathway are important eicosanoids that regulate angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. COX-2 inhibitors, which block the formation of prostaglandins, suppress tumor growth, whereassEH inhibitors, which increase endogenous EETs, stimulate primary tumor growth and metastasis. However, the functional interactions of these two pathways in cancer are unknown. Using pharmacological inhibitors as probes, we show here thatdual inhibition of COX-2 and sEH synergistically inhibits primary tumor growth and metastasis by suppressing tumor angiogenesis. COX-2/sEH dualpharmacological inhibitors also potently suppress primary tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis via selective inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. These results demonstrate a critical interaction of these two lipid metabolism pathways on tumorigenesis and suggestdual inhibition of COX-2 and sEH as a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy.

Unique mechanistic insights into the beneficial effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors in the prevention of cardiac fibrosis - Landmark Fibrosis Publication

Abstract

Tissue fibrosis represents one of the largest groups of diseases for which there are very few effective therapies. In the heart, myocardial infarction (MI) resulting in the loss of cardiac myocytes can culminate in adverse cardiac remodeling leading to eventual heart failure. Adverse cardiac remodeling includes myocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, and electrical remodeling. We have previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of several potent soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (sEHIs) in different models of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Here, we directly determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of sEHIs in cardiac remodeling post-MI. Treatment with a potent sEHI, 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidine-4-yl)urea (TPPU), which was started 1 wk post-MI in a murine model, results in a significant improvement in cardiac function. Importantly, treatment with TPPU results in a decrease in cardiac fibrosis as quantified using histological and immunostaining techniques. Moreover, single-cell-based assays demonstrate that treatment with TPPU results in a significant decrease not only in the percentages but also the proliferative capacity of different populations of cardiac fibroblasts as well as a reduction in the migration of fibroblasts into the heart from the bone marrow. Our study provides evidence for a possible unique therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiac fibrosis and improve cardiac function post-MI.